Participles should not be confused with the main verb in the sentence. Rather, they may work alone as describers, or in combination with a group of words as participial phrases
Present participle used as an adjective to describe a noun:
- Because of the lopsided score, the officials decided to use running time in the second half.
Past participle used as an adjective to describe a noun:
- Sweetened coffee turned her stomach.
Present participle introducing a phrase:
- Remembering his commitment to his wife, the tech assistant left work a few minutes early.
Past participle introducing a phrase:
- Handcuffed by the officer, the suspect climbed into the patrol car.
Participle problems are threefold. They can be improperly constructed, misplaced, or chronologically impossible.
Present participles regularly add -ing to the verb stem, though there are occasional spelling changes such as changing an ending -ie to -y before adding the suffix:
tie, tying; die, dying; lie, lying.
Past participles generally add -ed to the verb stem, but some two hundred verbs require an irregular form instead. This form is one used with helping verbs such as have. Some common irregular forms include the following:
go, (have) gone; write, (have) written; come, (have) come
The improper construction problems, then, are wrong spellings of present participles and the use of incorrect irregular past forms for past participles.
lieinglying on the bed is dirty.
rangrung from the rag splattered the floor.
Misplaced Participles or Participial Phrases
The noun or pronoun that the participle or participial phrase describes must follow it immediately. When another noun is substituted, the “dangling modifier” can sometimes create humorous sentences.
Examples of Dangling Modifiers
- Surfing in Hawaii, the waves were bigger than any he’d seen. (Waves don’t surf).
- Hiked frequently by tourists, the park rangers removed rocks from the trail. (Tourists hike the trails, not the rangers.)
These problems can be changed in a variety of ways.
1) Rearrange the main clause so that the noun which the participial phrase describes is the subject.
Surfing in Hawaii, he faced bigger waves than he’d seen before.
2) Reword the sentence without the participial phrase, creating instead a compound or complex sentence.
The park rangers removed rocks from the trail because tourists hiked them frequently.
3) Introduce the participial phrase with a subordinate conjunction such as after or before.
Before surfing in Hawaii, he’d never seen such big waves.
Present participles indicate simultaneous action. Consequently, a participial phrase must only contain action that can occur at the same time as the action of the main clause.
Examples Of Problematic Sentences
Running to catch the train, he bought his ticket at the booth. (He can’t be running to the train at the same time he is at the booth).
Turning on the oven, she mixed all her ingredients at the kitchen table. (She can’t be turning on the oven at the same time she is at the kitchen table.)
The quarterback threw a touchdown, celebrating with his own special dance. (The quarterback can’t be celebrating at the same time he is throwing the TD pass).
Primarily authors who use participial phrases in chronologically impossible ways intend to create a sequence of events. One way to correct the problem is to turn the phrase into a dependent clause.
Before the passenger ran for the train, he stopped at the booth to buy his ticket.
A second possibility is to create a compound verb.
She turned on the oven, then mixed all her ingredients at the kitchen table.
Finally, the sentence can be converted into a two sentences.
The quarterback threw a touchdown. He celebrated using his own special dance.
Authors can eliminate participle problems first by learning the proper spelling of present participles and the correct forms of irregular past participles, then by asking two questions: (1) Is the participle or participial phrase right next to the noun it’s describing; (2) Can the action in the participial phrase occur at the same time as the action of the main part of the sentence?
Chances are, once you start seeing participle problems, you’ll chuckle at the impossible things you’ve written, then you’ll happily edit them out.